Calvacade of Toys
A fascinating Story of Bygone Play
THE DESIRE to collect and preserve is a natural tendency of the human race. We are not surprised therefore to find many helps to young hoarders take the form of toys. Most famous of such helps are the mechanical banks of 19th century America. But these are allied to other types of money boxes. There exists also toy containers for candy, marbles and the sundry treasures of childhood.
Apparently, adults have sought to direct the hoarding tendencies of children into monetary channels almost from the beginning of time. Surviving receptacles for storing the small coin of the realm remain from the days of ancient Greece. These early types of coin preservers were made of pottery, frequently in the shape of urns. Pottery and porcelain 'still' banks were common throughout Western Europe from an early date. The first known 'mechanical' bank, where the insertion of a coin causes the motion of some attached figure, is an alms box of China's Han dynasty and from just before the Christian era. Even the Aztec civilization appears to have developed coin repositories for children.
Penny banks made their appearance in America around 1793, along with the first large copper penny. Their popularization is credited by most authorities to Benjamin Franklin's famous maxims concerning thrift, which were widely circulated in Poor Richard's Almanac. Another contributing factor, undoubtedly, was the early troubles with U. S. currency and the tendency to favor "hard money." Pottery, glass, and tin banks were prevalent throughout the early years of the Republic; they were concentrated especially in New England, where 'thrift' was to become a virtue almost rivaling the worship of God. So pronounced did the savings habit become with young and old alike that in cartoon and comment at home and abroad the typical Yankee was pictured as a "pinchpenny."
The social historian would gain much through a study of old letters and documents referring to the subjects of thrift. "A penny saved is a penny earned" and "waste not-want not" become the frequent admonitions of youth. The "savings bank" was a national habit, and contributed in no small way to the financial independence of this nation. Nowhere else in the world was the toy bank nearly as popular as in America. Commented a foreign exporting agent of the 1850's, The little tin bank always sells there, for it accords well with the grasping character of the race." Already we in America were becoming known for "squeezing the Eagle till it screamed;" and the late 1800's, when the American mechanical mechanical bank reached the zenith of its glory, also marked the appearance of the phrase "dollar diplomacy."
All through the early 20th century, as American bank balances reached unprecedented heights, thrift and savings were taught assiduously in the home and the school. It is significant that about the last of the new patents for toy savings banks appeared in 1929, the end of this economic era. Few banks are sold over toy counters today, and the weekly "bank day" collection of children's savings in the classroom has become discredited, due to the failure of many banks which were once depositories for school savings. The latest bank that we have seen characteristically makes its appeal to Uncle Sam as the guardian of our hoardings rather than to the private bank. Toy containers, and especially banks, are thus destined to become a distinct memoir of the youth of the 19th century America. A history of toys written from the standpoint of any other country would not have found need for a special chapter on banks.
POTTERY BANKS:—In all countries and ages, pottery and porcelain seem to have been the preferred material for toy banks. Early American-made banks are of this type,—crude representations of jugs, bureaus, animals, and other familiar objects with a slit for receiving the coin. Several pottery banks, slip decorated and of the 1830 vintage, have been preserved. The Philadelphia Museum of Art and the New York Historical Society have a few of these clay banks, both glazed and unglazed; the type is seldom seen in private collections. The fact that the pottery bank had to be broken in order to extract the accumulated contents undoubtedly made for their present shortage. Glazed apple-shaped pottery banks of the late 19th century are all fairly easy to obtain, as are certain other china and porcelain banks of this era. The most famous character was the China Pig, with a coin slit in its back. These were sold in the 1890's for as low as 10 cents each. Fortunately, the slit was large enough to permit pennies once inserted to slide out again if one worked assiduously enough. The authors remember as children their arduous labors of 'shaking the Pig' every time they wished to extract money for a sucker. It was so much trouble to get enough money out that often a spending project was abandoned.
GLASS BANKS:—The earliest glass bank that we have seen is one of the blown molded type. The geometrical design impressed on its sides, as well as the general shape of the bank suggest that the mold of a flip glass was used to fashion this bank. Blown glass banks which still survive are off-hand pieces in a variety of shapes, often formed of material left over after a days work. The most famous, probably, is that made for the works. A number of pressed glass banks were made after 1875, of which only a few examples are illustrated. In the 1890's, some pressed glass pieces were sold for a dual purpose. Their original function was as a container for mustard or some other food preparation; when emptied, these could be used as a bank.
TIN BANKS:—These had their greatest vogue in the years 1825 to 1875, though a few specimen appear which are earlier or later origin. They are characteristically small boxlike affairs in the form of churches, houses with pointed gables, drums, bandboxes, and the like. The parts are often snipped out by hand and soldered together, then painted a bright red or green and stenciled with make-believe windows. On some appear the motto "Time is money." One drum bank of the Civil War period shows both George Washington and Lincoln. Something of the age of tin banks can be told by examination of the coin slit. In 1857 the minting of large copper cents was abandoned and the coin slit thereafter was made smaller. Tin was used in some mechanical banks, though iron was the favored material. Among late tin banks to gain popularity was the toy cash register, first issued in 1907. This is not classed with mechanical banks, as the inserting of the coin was not necessarily associated with registering the amount.
WOODEN BANKS:—Wood was used for toy banks, but not as extensively as other materials. In fact most of the wooden banks which have turned up may be thought of as folk art pieces,—that is, home whittled affairs. Even the few mechanical wooden banks that have been found by bank collectors are either an individual creation, or working models for a patent which later was cast in iron. An interesting instance of the folk type art is the "Two-faced Boy" which is illustrated. Banks of this type are very rare, and so are old banks made of leather, skulls, or other unusual material.
CAST IRON STILL BANKS:—After 1860 tin banks gradually came to be replaced by banks of cast iron. This material made for sturdier banks, and also, owing to its greater tractability, could be produced in a greater variety of interesting shapes. Patterns portrayed not only houses, but birds, human beings, and animals as well. Historic objects such as the Liberty Bell and Bunker Hill Monument were made in the form of banks. As indicated in the illustration, these banks were usually made of two pieces of metal, bolted together. To get the money out it was not necessary to break the bank. All that had to be done was to unscrew the bolt. As this was not a job for the child, the parent was assured of being able to watch over the distribution as well as the acquisition of pennies.
Most of the "still" cast iron banks now available were made in the late 19th century and the early 20th century, but a few antidate the mechanical variety of cast iron bank. As none of these were patented, it is hard to trace their history and place of origin. The Safe Bank, in which money is removed only by working a combination of the door appeared around 1895; it was popular well into the 1920's. In the 20th century patents have been taken out for adding sound to still coin receptacles. Few of these have seen the market, nor are banks which light up or ring bells upon deposit of the coin frequently found.
MECHANICAL BANKS:—The mechanical banks of the 19th century represent the union of two fundamental traits of the American Yankee, his thrift and his ingenuity. In the medium of cast iron there appeared after 1870 a host of action toys which could be operated properly only by insertion of a penny. The purpose which lay behind these elaborate coin receptacles was that children could be lured into the habit of thrift by their curiosity to see the thing work. It is said that the sugarcoated method of saving appealed to children; at any rate it did to their parents, who bought these mechanical banks in large quantities. Designers vied with each other in the creation of new and startling effects, until in some the depositing of the coin became but a minor consideration to the feats of movement performed by the cast iron figures of men and animals which overlay the coin receptacle. The subjects of many such banks appealed as much to adults as to children. They became another example of the outpouring of popular art, along with Cigar Store Indians and Rogers Groups. In this unsophisticated art which appeared in the late 19th century, one can detect that handicraft of real craftsmen coupled for the first time with the machinery of mass production.
What is the oldest mechanical bank? Some persons, on the questionable authority of personal reminiscence, say that the Uncle Sam Bank appeared in the 1850's. This was indeed a popular early bank and several companies showed it in their 1870 catalogs; and if we are to accept the evidence of patent files, the lever system which is basic to this bank was not developed until the 70's. The first mechanical bank to be patented (and the great majority were designed so as to be protected by patent) is ordinarily not to be thought of as being in this class. It is a house Bank called Hall's Excelsior, and it makes no use of the elaborate lever, spring and clockwork arrangements which are characteristic of the later varieties. The patent (number, 98055) was taken out by John Hall, of Watertown, Mass. on Dec. 21, 1869. The patent feature includes a simple balance mechanism located in the roof of the cast iron house, so arranged that when a cupola hatchway is lifted, there is revealed a small figure standing behind a desk. The weight of a penny, placed on the desk causes the figure (and penny) to tip forward into the bank and the cupola hatchway is then closed. Hall made a large number of these banks and they were widely distributed throughout the country. However, we have never seen any in which the man figure (like the patent) was used. Instead there is a tiny monkey, and in some of the later ones, the balance hatchway is pulled shut by an attached spring. This was perhaps added to compensate for the lighter weight of the later one cent-pieces. Hall perfected and made a number of other early mechanical banks, including the bank variously called "Fat Man," "Boss Tweed," or "Tammany Bank." His work does not appear after 1880.
J.H. Bowan of Philadelphia was one of the most ingenious and prolific designers of mechanical banks. To him are credited such well known banks as Credmore, Kicking Mule, Bulldog, and Monkey and Coaconut. Apparently he made his model, and often the casting dies, and then sold these to some manufacturing company, such as the Stevens Company of Cromwell, Connecticut.
Other famous designers were F. Frisbee who appears always to have been associated with the Stevens Company, and G. G. Shepard of Buffalo, New York, who designed and marketed the Jolly Nigger coin-swallowing banks and a number of other related types. Not all banks which were patented appear to have been made, and not all banks in existence can be traced to patent sources. Many banks used the same mechanical principles; this is illustrated by the variants made from the basic Credmore design. The original of this bank was produced by the Stevens company in 1877. The second variety was the Tyrolian (1877), then came the Grenadier (1878), Volunteer (1880), Indian and the Bear (1888), William Tell (1896), Lion Hunter (1900), Teddy and the Bear (1902).
The company most active in mechanical bank production was the J. & E. Stevens Co. of Cromwell, Connecticut. This iron foundry in 1870 was the first to make moving parts for juggling the penny. Within a few years they were offering no less than 21 distinct patterns for the trade. Their banks are distinguished by patented coin traps. Kingsbury of Keene, New Hampshire, Hubley of Lancaster, Pennsylvania, Enterprise of Philadelphia, and Shepard of Buffalo and Kenton, Ohio, are other famous makers. Old trade catalogs, which are hard to find, are the surest way of identifying the maker. Few banks are marked by the maker; many times, where they could chance it, several different companies would copy the successful bank of a competitor. Banks were usually made to retail from $1.00 to $2.00, with $4.50 as a top price for a few of the more complicated action toys, such as the Freedman's Bank.
Little has been written about the actual construction of mechanical toy banks, but one famous designer, Bowen, has left this record of his creations in a letter to the Philadelphia Times of 1885.
" 'the 'Creedmor' bank was the first I made,' said the bank maker. 'That was followed by the Kicking Mule, the Bulldog and others. I am now at work upon a more complicated toy bank. The first bronze casting has just come in. We are now chasing it and filing down all the rough edges, and making all the joints work easily. I first of all make a solid model of the figure in specially prepared ways. From this I take a plaster of paris mold in two halves. Then I make two hollow models of the figure in wax from these molds. The next thing is to separate from the complete models the parts which are intended to be movable. Before me I have the left fore-arm and hand of a monkey, holding up a piece of cocoanut shell, the thumb of the right hand, the lower jaw, the eyes and the tail which, when the toy is complete, will act in conjunction with a spring on the inside. These parts being removed, I have to make a fresh model in wax of every part, with an end or joint attached to them. They are then sent to the brass foundry to be cast in bronze. The whole figure has to be made complete and working in wax before it goes to the foundry. When they come back some of the pieces are very rough and need a great deal of filing and chasing to make them fit and move easily. You see, the model in bronze that I make is the foundation from which all the banks are eventually to be made, and unless my model works perfectly there will be no end of complaints when it goes eventually to the iron foundry, where the marketable toys are turned out.' "
The above comment was written in the heyday of the mechanical bank, when its production was 'news'. There were over 30 patents issued for the year 1880 alone. From the date of 1885 onward, a gradual deterioration of the bank took place. It became more elaborate, less interesting, and not in great demand. The last of the mechanical banks appears to have been advertised around 1908, so that the total span in not much more than 35 years.
CLASSIFICATION OF MECHANICAL BANKS:—The distinctive character of mechanical banks has provided a unique field for the collector, over 300 having been made. Each bank can be given a distinctive name and its variants can be gradually tracked down. To one who is not interested in providing a mere check list, several means of classification as to type may be used. One is according to mechanical action; but most banks are lever and spring operated, and only a few can be placed in the other class of clockwork operation. Another suggested classification is according to rarity, but as the question of rarity bears no relation to age or action type this would not be especially fruitful. A classification that is fairly common with collectors rests upon the object or central idea of a bank. Upon such a basis one may discern the following types; Negroes, Bank Tellers, Symbolic Figures, Caricatures, Animals, Carnival Themes, and Memorial Banks. Famous caricature banks included the Tammany or Boss Tweed bank, and the General Butler bank, which portrayed the presidential candidate of the 1884 Greenback Party as a monstrous frog. The animal and carnival theme banks show on the whole the greatest diversity of treatment. Several memorial banks were issued at the time of the 1876 Centennial in Philadelphia, and also for the Columbus and Pan-American Expositions which followed.
Another and final method of classification is according to age; and this we have followed due to our interest in the chronological development of toys. We may group banks roughly in four decades (1) those of the 1870's when the mechanical bank was new, (2) those of the 1880's when the bank was generally popular and (3) those of the 1890's and (4) those of the 1900's when the bank had begun its decline in popular favor.
On the opposite page we have shown mechanical banks typical of the 1870's; during this period the bank was at its best from a child's standpoint. Simple in design, without superfluous ornament, they all make obvious appeal to use of penny. The little Fat Man puts his penny in his pocket. Uncle Sam puts his in his valise. The Mother Eagle bends forward and feeds the penny to her young, and the Soldier shoots his penny from a cannon into the fort-like safe.
The banks of the 1880's are typified by six examples from the page of a jobbers catalog of that period. It will be noticed that animal figures are beginning to come more into prominence and that the choice of subject is not quite as good as in the preceding decade. Already, in their desire to put out something new, the bank makers were beginning to take second best ideas, coupled with more complex action. Consider the Bull Dog bank! Instructions are, "place money on his nose, pull tail down and then release, causing three distinct movements—head pulled backward, jaws open and money drops in; after this swallowing of food placed on his nose, release of the tail pulls the head back in original position ready for another feeding." In Paddy and His Pig, the penny is placed on the pig's nose and a lever is pulled. Thereupon Paddy's eyes roll back, his mouth opens and his tongue licks the penny from the pig's nose. In the "Cabin" bank, movement of the whitewash brush causes the negro to stand on his head and kick the coin into the cabin. The Mirror Multiplier Bank has no special mechanical action, but depends for its appeal upon the optical effect. The Novelty Bank is such that when the penny is given to the teller and a lever is pulled, the door closes and one may observe through the window the passage of the teller to a place of deposit. The Frog on Stump bank performs a simple swallowing movement.
Typical banks of the 1890's include the Boy and Trapese, the William Tell, 'Spise the Mule and Speaking Dog. In the William Tell bank the penny serves as shot for knocking the proverbial apple from the child's head. While this bank appeared in the 90's a similar type of shooting bank (Credmore) had been introduced in an earlier decade. In the Speaking Dog and Mule Banks, the action for depositing the coin is still fairly direct and simple and would undoubtedly delight a child. Also illustrated is the Chinese Beggar, a contemporary bank of papier mache whose head nods when the penny is inserted. This typifies the German attempt to compete for the American market. That it did not succeed is shown by the fact that this foreign bank is a rarity in America.
After 1900, banks became primarily mechanical toys in which the saving element was very minor. A glance at the page from a manufacturers 1906 catalog indicates the over elaborate decoration which also characterized the period. Many of these late mechanical banks were nickel plated, lacking the naive charm of the earlier cast iron banks with their brightly painted exteriors. The Jumping Rope bank, pictured here, is the ultimate of something or other. In their description of the bank, the makers say, "in manufacturing this bank the aim has been to produce a prolonged and continuous performance of its amusing features without the aid of an expensive mechanism. This has been accomplished by inventing a simple, strong, durable spring motor. The simulation of "skipping rope" is perfect. The body, head, feet, and rope all moving in unison, but each part performs independently its own peculiar and appropriate manner." One looks for some time before finding the coin slit! In fact, this toy could be enjoyed without any penny saving. These late banks apparently were not made in any quantity and some may never have passed the sample stage.
Assignment of causes for the disappearance of mechanical banks is very difficult. One may have been the greater popularity of combination safe banks which originated in the late nineties. Another possible cause lies in the fact that the schools developed special savings plans and that money was deposited there. Again, banks and trust companies got out their own little satchel-like safes which could be opened only at the Teller's window. All these undoubtedly contributed to the decay of a toy and an industry naturally destined to be ephemeral. All possible new varieties and gadgets were exhausted before mechanical banks disappeared. Looking over the types remaining, we wonder that the moving parts could have jiggled the penny in so many amazing ways before it was swallowed.
RARITY IN MECHANICAL BANKS:—Although only 70 years old at the most, mechanical banks have already become a valued collectors' item. Banks which formerly sold at a dollar or two may command as much as $100.00. Curiously enough, it is the newest, rather than the oldest mechanical banks which sometimes bring these stupendous prices. Rarity is a function of the number available and this is not necessarily coupled with age. It happens in the bank field that many of the early banks were very popular and widely sold. Being made of cast iron, they also endured better than more fragile types of toys. As a result such banks as the Tammany, Cannon, and Eagle are in the commonest class. Hall's Excelsior, the oldest of them all, can still be had for around $2.00 and lacks takers. On the other hand most banks of the 1880 and 1890 periods bring distinctly better prices, some up to $35.00. But for the rarest of all banks there exists only one specimen, probably a sample.
To understand this condition of affairs, by which such a bank would bring a fabulous price, we have to understand bank collectors. These are relatively few and they vie among themselves in the race to see who can have something not possessed by another. Many of these collectors are bankers, or executives of large corporations, such as the late Walter P. Chrysler. It is not uncommon for a dealer, upon finding a rare bank, to offer it to several such men for competitive bidding. These men are not concerned whether the bank was popular with children or not. They are intrigued by its uniqueness and individual action.
On the whole, rare banks are both newer and more elaborate than the common varieties. The Harlequin bank is a good example of a rare bank. Although only a little over 30 years old, its clever design, interesting action, and scarcity make it both the joy and the despair of bank collectors. It first appears in a fly leaf of a 1906 catalog, although a similar action was patented in 1887. The Merry-go-round is also a very good bank, though not quite as rare as the Harlequin and of slightly earlier vintage. Bank action is seen at its most complex in Professor Pug Frog's Great Bicycle Feat. Releasing a spring causes the frog to make two complete somersaults before depositing the coin in the basket held by the clown. Related actions are the spring of the wheel and the throwing of the music rack into the face of Mother Goose, causing her tongue to wag.
About seventy-five percent of the surviving production of mechanical banks is now in the hands of some ten or twelve outstanding collectors. All of these collections are quite valuable and the addition of new collectors searching for the rarer items continually drives the value upward. Who would have thought that a plaything like the mechanical bank would attain such importance as to be placed in the cabinets of connoisseurs. The mechanical bank is the first toy outside the doll to have reached this estate. Perhaps it is because of its true American flavor that the bank has had so many enthusiastic friends among the collecting public. One can now estimate what will happen as the collection of other toy types becomes widespread.
PAPER BANKS AND BOXES:—These have been used by Sunday School societies for a long time, and some have been sold over the toy counter. Ebbet and Co., No. 18 New Church Street, New York City, describes in 1880 a Puzzle Book Bank "opening of which will afford fun for young and old." Coming into the 20th century, we see the "thrift book" with pocket envelopes pasted on the pages. These banks have been neglected by collectors in their zest to track down other types.
GLASS CANDY CONTAINERS:—A type of toy container which has been all but forgotten by the interest for banks, is those carriers of candy so common at the beginning of this century. These are made of pressed glass in all variety of shapes, mostly in replica of toy trains, pistols and other objects with which the child likes to play. Filled with vicious looking licorice or sickly pink pills resembling bird shot, they were a standard item of early candy counters and have not entirely disappeared today. Just what their source of origin or motivation is we have not been able to ascertain. Presumptively they were a way to sell cheap candy more dearly. That children were attracted by the containers rather than the candy is indicated by memories of persons now living and by the fascinating varieties still found preserved in many attics. Already collectors are beginning to pick these up, and soon here, as elsewhere, demand will exceed supply.
BANKS, HOARDING AND CHILDREN:—One cannot close this chapter without a word as to the success of the bank as a toy. That children have a natural acquisitive tendency few will deny. The quantities of old stones and sticks brought into the playroom are mute evidence of that. But the bank's success of translating this natural tendency to the gathering of money is somewhat questionable, at least for the more elaborate mechanical bank. Children with no particular desire to save may well have thrilled over the mechanical bank, but any container will suffice if the child wishes to collect. Most of the banks we have discussed were really mechanical toys incidentally devised for thrift. Today there is little "thrift" talk with children and little use for banks. In any event, the mechanical bank will ever remain to delight the collector. It is the 19th century popular art at its zenith, and we may believe that many adults originally bought them to play with. This would not be the first time that adult taste has determined a toy's ephemeral popularity.
CAVALCADE OF TOYS
A book treating every phase of this fascinating subject
by the outstanding toy collectors of America
RUTH AND LARRY FREEMAN
Complete from ancient times to the present
OVER 2500 TOYS ILLUSTRATED
Dr. Freeman is a professor of psychology at Northwestern University, his wife a well-known nursery school teacher. Their book, culminating years of research in the field of Nursery Americana, recalls with pleasant nostalgia the playlife of childhood, "when the world was young and marvelous to behold."
by the same authors: THE CHILD AND HIS PICTURE BOOK, Century House, New York
The field of toys holds so many fascinating interests for adults that a comprehensive treatment of the subject is difficult. Years ago, when the authors first began to collect the toys of bygone days, it was the nostalgic and the artistic which commanded their attention. Then as they toured museums and delved into old magazines, it was the historical approach that caught their eye. They went to modern factories for an experience in contrasts, and here the commercial aspect was appreciated. Finally, in their professional capacities, the authors came to consider the psychological and educational aspects of toys.
The idea of combining these various interests in a book was urged upon the authors by their friends, and without foresight into the enormity of the task, work was begun. The fact that the field was almost virgin called for a number of arbitrary decisions. The reader, who has some special interest in toys, is asked to forget that he is only a collector, an educator, or a toy buyer, and so enrich his appreciation of those objects everyone played with as a child. To those whose interest in toys is more general, it is hoped this book will open many attractive new vistas.
The authors have attempted to make this book an authoritative treatment. It has not been easy, particularly in regard to the historical approach. Toys are among the most ephemeral of objects, and dated records of their production are even more rare. There is probably a greater mortality in toy concerns than in any other field of business. Even those concerns which have withstood years of changing interests seldom have retained their early toy catalogs. The attributions of objects now in museums are not much help, as they frequently rest on nothing more substantial than the donors' recollections that the toys were played with by their grandparents. The authors are inclined to view many of the toys now in American museums as being younger than they are dated. In their own dating, the authors have tried to be on the conservative side. Old catalogs, newspapers and patent files have been consulted wherever possible. The question of whether a toy is of foreign or American make has also been considered. No claim of omnipotence is made of such attributions. The serious student will recognize that dolls and mechanical banks are the only two areas of Nursery Americana which have previously received any systematic attention by collector-historians. Additions and corrections will be welcomed as they are turned up.
In this treatment of toys, the authors have developed the following procedure: major chapter headings are determined by the types of play-activity in which toys are used; subheadings deal with toys made of particular kinds of material or by various processes; treatment of each subtopic is historical, and there are integrative comments at the beginning and end of chapters. Illustrations are not numbered, but explanatory designations are given where needed. Unless otherwise credited, toys shown are from the authors' collection. Patent file drawings and catalog pages have no special designation, except as date and source are indicated therein. Many of these pages have been considerably reduced in size, in order that the reader can achieve a general survey of the toy field without handling a large and unwieldy book. The serious student of some specialty may need his magnifying glass occasionally!
The interest and assistance of many persons contributed to the making of this book. Special acknowledgements are due to Editor R. McCready of the trade magazine Playthings, Wilber Marcey Stone—the Dean of American toy collectors, and the trade card collections of the New York Historical Society and the Essex Institute of Salem, Massachusetts. It is regrettable that space limitations prevent a listing of additional sources of inspiration and information. To do so would make a permanent record of the many friendships formed in the pursuit of a fascinating hobby.
The field of toy collecting is in its infancy, and many are destined to find here a source of unending delight. In these difficult times "toys for remembering" becomes very meaningful. As we contemplate these objects—their history and development, we recapture something of the sanity of childhood, when the world was new and wonderful to behold.
RUTH AND LARRY FREEMAN
Watkins Glen, N.Y.